And finally in tonight's news, a nine-year-old boy named Joe told not to draw in class wins a job decorating a restaurant with his drawings rather than shutting down the habit of drawing in his school's workbook.
(1) Joe's parents decided to encourage his creativity by sending their son to an after-school art class. His teacher recognized Joe's talent and posted all his work online, which led to something pretty wonderful. (2) A restaurant named Number 4 in Newcastle contacted Joe's teachers to ask if the nine-year-old could come and decorated the dining room with his drawings. Every day after school, Joe's dad drives him to theOY restaurant, so he can put his ideas straight on the wall.
Once he's all done, the work will remain there permanently. Joe's dad says, Joe is a really talented little boy. He's excellent at school. He's great at football, but drawing is definitely what he is most passionate about.
Q1. What did Joe's parents decide to do?
Q2. what did the restaurant, Number 4, do?
Christine Marshall, a-34-year-old mum of one posted a tearful video on social media, Wednesday, begging for the safe return of her beloved pet dog. After combing through the security video outside a global’s shop, (3) Christine has now posted an image of a man suspected of stealing the dog. The image appears to show a man carrying the dog in his arms.
Christine also believes the video obtained from the shop shows the dog being stolen by a man before driving off in a car, which had been waiting nearby. (4) The family is now offering a 5,000 pound reward for the safe return of the dog after launching a social media campaign to find the thief, the dog is six and a half years old and was last seen wearing a red collar.
Christine said “We will pay that to anyone who brings him home, as long as they are not responsible for his disappearance, please on investigating the incident”.
Q3 What is Christine Marshall trying to do?
Q4 What does the news report say about Christine Marshall's family?
London's eggs and bread cafe offers a boiled eggs, toast, jam, and bacon, as well as tea, coffee, and orange juice. But at the end of the meal, customers don't have to worry about the bill. Hungry customers can pay whatever amount they can afford to eat at the cafe or nothing at all. (5) Owner Guy Wilson says his cafe aims to build community rather than profits. He wants to provide a bridge for people to connectWANGYI in an area that has been divided by class and wealth, by providing affordable breakfast. (6) The cafe is open in the mornings every day of the year. And has two members of staff or supervisors on shift every day. The cafe doesn't use volunteers, but pays its staff to ensure consistency in its service. It doesn't take donations and doesn't want to be seen as a charity. Mr. Wilson says when people start to know other people around them, (7) they realize they're not that different and whatever their financial background or their educational background, most people will have something in common with each other. He says it's important that his cafe can offer his customers security and permanence
Q5 What does Guy Wilson say his cafe aims to do?
Q6 What does the news report say about eggs and bread cafe?
Q7 What happens when people start to know each other according to Guy Wilson?
M: So what time do you think we should have the party on Saturday?
W: How about inviting people to come at 6:00 PM then we'll have the afternoon to prepare food and drink and stuff like that?
M: Yes. I was thinking that around six would be good too. What food should we provide?
W: Well, I had thought about baking a cake and some biscuits, and now I think we should prepare some sandwiches and snacks and some other kinds of food so that people can just help themselves rather than getting everyone to sit down at the table to eat a meal. I think that's a bit too formal. It's better to let people walk around and talk to each other or sit where they like.
M: Yes, that sounds good. I'll go to the supermarket to get some drinks. I think I might try that big new supermarket on the other side of town, see what they have. I've not been there before. I think we should get some beer and wine and some fruit juice and other soft drinks. What do you think?
W: Sounds great. I think those drinks will be enough. And I heard that the new supermarket offers some big discounts to attract customers, so going there should be a great idea. What should we do about music?
M：Maybe we should also ask Pual to bring his computer and speakers so that we can play some music. He has a great collection of different stuff. Yes. All right.
Q8. What are the speakers mainly talking about?
Q9. Why does the woman say it is a good idea to serve foods that guests can help themselves too?
Q10. What does the woman say about the new supermarket?
W: I’m thinking of buying a car. I wouldn't need to use it every day, but I think it would be very convenient to have one for the weekends.
M: That's exciting. Would this be your first car?
M: I actually owned a car for a little while when I lived in Miami. You see, in America, many cities don't have good public transport.
So most people need their ownOY car to get around.
W: I see.
M: So have you got your mindset on a specific model?
W: No, not really.
(13) I've heard that German cars are very reliable, but I haven't decided on a specific model yet.
I'd also like it to be small so that it's easy to drive in the city.
M: I have a friend who sells secondhand cars. In fact, I think his family owns the business.
He's a really nice guy and he knows a lot about cars. I could give you his phone number if you want, and you could call him and ask him questions.
W: Hmm. That's nice of you, but I don't want to feel obliged to buy one of his car.
M: Oh no. He's not like that. He's a good friend of mine and he would never try to pressure you.
W: Well, if you trust him, then I guess it should be okay. To be honest, I could use some help in deciding what type of vehicle would best suit my needs.
Speaking to an expert would be a good idea.
M: Exactly. You have nothing to worry about. He's a lovely guy and he'll be happy to help.
Q13. What does the woman say about German cars?
Q14. What does the man recommend the woman do?
Q15. What do we learn about the Loinbo's friend from the conversation?
Pigs are not native to north America. They were first introduced to California by Spanish and Russian explorers and settlers many centuries ago. In the early times, pigs were allowed to wander freely and search a food. This practice also allowed many pigs to escape from farms and live in the wild, which became a problem.
In fact, as one of the most damaging invasive species on the continent, wild pigs caused millions of dollars in crop damage yearly. TheyOY also harbored dozens of diseases that threaten both humans and farm animals. Forest patches with wild pigs have been found to have considerably reduced plant and animal diversity.
In addition to either eating other animals or their food supply, wild pigs damaged native habitats by reaching up crosses and rubbing on trees. Their activities may also create opportunities for invasive plants to colonize these areas. Wild pigs will eat almost anything containing calories. Mice, deer, birds, snakes and frogs are among their victims.
They can also harm other wild species through indirect competition rather than eating them or shrinking their food supply. On one particular United States island, wild pigs themselves became an attractive food source for a species of mainland eagle. Eagles began breeding on the island and also feeding on a species of native fox. The foxes were almost wiped out completely.
Q16. What do we learn about early pigs in north America?
Q17. Why are wild pigs a threat to humans?
Q18. What does the passage say about the native foxes on a U.S. island?
(19) A pair of entrepreneurs are planning to build and launch a spacecraft that would carry and roast coffee beans in outer space. The craft will use the heat of re-entry to roast coffee beans, as they float inside it in a pressurized tank. The effect would be to roast the beans all over and produce perfect coffee. (20) The businessmen say that on earth, beans can easily break apart and get burned in the roaster. But if gravity is removed, the beans float around and heated oven, received 360 degrees of evenly distributed heat and roast to near perfection. The spacecraft will reach a height of around 200 kilometers. The beans would WANGYI then be roasted and the heat generated by the crafts 20 minute re-entry into earth's atmosphere. Temperatures and the pressurized tank will be kept to around 200 degrees Celsius. Once back on earth, the planet's first space roasted beans would be used to make coffee that would be sold for the first time in Dubai. This is where the Pairs company is based. It is not clear how much they would charge for a cup. Surprisingly, the space roaster concept should it go ahead will not be the first attempt to take coffee into space. (21) In 2015, two Italian companies collaborated on the construction of a similar type of spacecraft, which was the first coffee machine designed for use in space.
Q19. What are a pair of entrepreneurs planning to do?
Q20 . What does the passage say about coffee beans roasted on earth?
Q21. What did the two Italian companies do in 2015?
In cold and snowy Alaska, there’s a village called Takotna. It has a population of a mere 49 adults. Each March, this tiny village swells up in numbers because it is located in the middle of a race that takes place every year. It is a seven-day race called “The Iditarod Trail”. And participants stop at Takotna for the obligatory 24 hour rest.
Lucky for them, Takotna is famous OY for its delicious fruit pies. Weeks before the competitors arrive, the residents of Takotna start preparing what is without question their biggest event of the year. The whole village chips in to help, including the kids, who end up developing their baking skills at an early age. Exhausted and hungry racers are greeted with delightful pies of all kinds, such as apple, orange, lemon, or banana.
They consume the pies and a stomach warming race fuel. The toughness of the race allows for racers to eat pretty much whatever they want. The more calories, the better. Takotna has gained a reputation for its dessert-based hospitality since the 1970s. It started with one person, Jane Newton. Jane moved from Iditarod with her husband in 1972 and opened a restaurant. A rich and filling fruit pies quickly got the races attention, and the village gained some fame as a result. Proud residents then started to refer to Jane as queen of Takotna.
Questions 22 to 25, or based on the passage, you have just heard
Q22. Why do a lot of people come to the village of Takotna every March?
Q23. What is the village of Takotna famous for?
Q24. Who comes to help with the event of the year?
Q25. What does the passage say about Jane Newton?
1.C) Send him to an after-school art class.
2.D) Contacted Joe to decorate its dining-room.
3.A) Get her pet dog back.
4.B) It is offering a big reward to anyone who helps.
5.D) Help people connect with each other.
6.B) It does not use volunteers
7.A)They will find they have something in common
8.D) Preparations for Saturday's get-together.
9.A) It enables guests to walk around and chat freely.
10.B) It offers some big discounts.
11.D)Bring his computerand speakers
12.C) For convenience at weekends.
13.B) They are reliable.
14.C) Seek advice from his friend
15.A)He can be trusted.
16.D) Many escaped from farms and became wild.
17.A)They carry a great many diseases.
18.B) They fell victim to eagles.
19.C) Roast coffee beans in outer space.
20.A) They can easily get burned.
21.B) They collaborated on building the first space coffee machine.
22.C)A race passes through it annually.
23.D)It’s tasty fruit pies.
24.A) The entire village.
25.C) She helped the village to become famous.
1. A) See the Pope.
2.D) He ended up in the wrong place.
3. C) Glasgow has pledged to take the lead in reducing carbon emissions in the UK.
4.A)Glasgow needs to invest in new technologies to reach its goal.
5.B)It permits employees to bring cats into their offices.
6. B) Rescue homeless cats.
7. C) It has let some other companies to follow suit.
8. A) Find out where is Jimmy.
9.B)He was working on a project with Jimmy.
10. C) He was involved a traffic accident.
11.D)He wanted to conceal something from his parents.
12. B) Shopping online.
13. D) Getting one's car parked.
14. C) The quality of food products.
15.A)It saves money
16. D)They have strong negative emotions towards math.
17.B) It affects low performing children only.
18.A) Most of them have average to strong math ability.
19. C) Addiction to computer games is a disease.
20. A)They prioritize their favored activity over what they should do.
21.D)There is not enough evidence to classify it as a disease.
22.C) They are a shade of red bordering on brown.
23.D) They must follow some common standards.
24. B) They look more official.
25. D) For security.
What happens when a language has no words for numbers?
36.[E]It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively（在認知方面）normal，well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.
37.[H] Compared with other mammals, our numerical instincts are not as remarkable as many assume.
38.[E] It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively（在認知方面）normal，well-adapted to the surroundings they have dominated for centuries.
39.[B]But, in a historical sense,number-conscious people like us are the unusual ones.
40.[K]Research on the language of numbers shows, more and more, that one of our species' key characteristics is tremendous linguistic（語言的）and cognitive diversity. 41.[D]This and many other experiments have led to a simple conclusion:When people do not have number words,they struggle to make quantitative distinctions that probably seem natural to someone like you or me.
42.[G] None of us, then, is really a"numbers person."We are not born to handle quantitative distinctions skillfully.
43.[A]Numbers do not exist in all cultures
44. [I] So,how did we ever invent "unnatural"numbers in the first place? The answer is,literally,at your fingertips.
45. 45.[F]This conclusion is echoed by work with anumeric children in industrialized societies.
The start of high school doesn't have to be stressful
36.[E] ln addition, studies find the first year of high school typically shows one of the greatest increases in depression of any year over the lifespan.
37.[G] ln one recent study, we examined 360 adolescents' beliefs about the nature of "smartness"- that is, their fixed mindsets about intelligence.
38.[J]These findings lead to several possibilities that we are investigating further.
39.[C]In the new global economy,students who fail to finish the ninth grade with passing grades in college preparatory coursework are very unlikely to graduate on time and go on to get jobs.
40.[H]We also investigated the social side of the high school transition.
41.[E]n addition, studies find the first year of high school typically shows one of the greatest increases in depression of any year over the lifespan.
42.[D]The consequences of doing poorly in the ninth grade can impact more than students' ability to find a good job.
43.[A]This month, more than 4 million students across the nation will begin high school.
44.[I]Experiment results showed that students who were not taught that people can change showed poor stress responses.
45.[F]Given all that's riding on having a successful ninth grade experience, it pays to explore what can be done to meet the academic, social and emotional challenges of the transition to high school.
Science of setbacks:How failure can improve career prospects
36.[G]One straightforward reason close losers might outper- form narrow winners is that the two groups have comparable ability.
37.[D]Others in the US have found similar effects with National Institutes of Health early-career fellowships launching narrow winners far ahead of close losers.
38.[K]ln sports and many areas of life,we think of failures as evidence of something we could have done better.
39.[B]one way social scientists have probed the effects of career setbacks is to look at scientists of very similar qualifications.
40.[I]He said the people who should be paying regard to the Wang paper are the funding agents who distribute government grant money.
41.[F]In a study published in Nature Communications,North- western University sociologist Dashun Wang tracked more than 1,100 scientists who were on the border between getting a grant and missing out between 1990 and 2005.
42.[J] For his part,Wang said that in his own experience,losing did light a motivating fire.
43.[C]A 2018 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, for example, followed researchers in the Netherlands.
44.[I]He said the people who should be paying regard to the Wang paper are the funding agents who distribute government grant money.
45.[E]This is bad news for the losers.
What happens when a language has no words for numbers?
Numbers do not exist in all cultures. There are numberless hunter-gatherers embedded deep in Amazonia, living along branches of the world’s largest river tree. Instead of using words for precise quantities, these people rely exclusively on terms analogous to “a few” or “some.”
In contrast, our own lives are governed by numbers. As you read this, you are likely aware of what time it is, how old you are, your checking account balance, your weight and so on. The exact (and exacting) numbers we think with impact everything from our schedules to our self-esteem.
But, in a historical sense, numerically fixated people like us are the unusual ones. For the bulk of our species’ approximately 200,000-year lifespan, we had no means of precisely representing quantities. What’s more, the 7,000 or so languages that exist today vary dramatically in how they utilize numbers.
Speakers of anumeric, or numberless, languages offer a window into how the invention of numbers reshaped the human experience. In a 2017 book, I explored the ways in which humans invented numbers, and how numbers subsequently played a critical role in other milestones, from the advent of agriculture to the genesis of writing.
Cultures without numbers, or with only one or two precise numbers, include the Munduruku and Pirahã in Amazonia. Researchers have also studied some adults in Nicaragua who were never taught number words.
Without numbers, healthy human adults struggle to precisely differentiate and recall quantities as low as four. In an experiment, a researcher will place nuts into a can one at a time, then remove them one by one. The person watching is asked to signal when all the nuts have been removed. Responses suggest that anumeric people have some trouble keeping track of how many nuts remain in the can, even if there are only four or five in total.
This and many other experiments have converged upon a simple conclusion: When people do not have number words, they struggle to make quantitative distinctions that probably seem natural to someone like you or me. While only a small portion of the world’s languages are anumeric or nearly anumeric, they demonstrate that number words are not a human universal.
It is worth stressing that these anumeric people are cognitively normal, well-adapted to the environs they have dominated for centuries. As the child of missionaries, I spent some of my youth living with anumeric indigenous people, the aforementioned Pirahã who live along the sinuous banks of the black Maici River. Like other outsiders, I was continually impressed by their superior understanding of the riverine ecology we shared.
Yet numberless people struggle with tasks that require precise discrimination between quantities. Perhaps this should be unsurprising. After all, without counting, how can someone tell whether there are, say, seven or eight coconuts in a tree? Such seemingly straightforward distinctions become blurry through numberless eyes.
This conclusion is echoed by work with anumeric children in industrialized societies.
Prior to being spoon-fed number words, children can only approximately discriminate quantities beyond three. We must be handed the cognitive tools of numbers before we can consistently and easily recognize higher quantities.
In fact, acquiring the exact meaning of number words is a painstaking process that takes children years. Initially, kids learn numbers much like they learn letters. They recognize that numbers are organized sequentially, but have little awareness of what each individual number means. With time, they start to understand that a given number represents a quantity greater by one than the preceding number. This “successor principle” is part of the foundation of our numerical cognition, but requires extensive practice to understand.
None of us, then, is really a “numbers person.” We are not predisposed to handle quantitative distinctions adroitly. In the absence of the cultural traditions that infuse our lives with numbers from infancy, we would all struggle with even basic quantitative distinctions.
Number words and written numerals transform our quantitative reasoning as they are coaxed into our cognitive experience by our parents, peers and school teachers. The process seems so normal that we sometimes think of it as a natural part of growing up, but it is not. Human brains come equipped with certain quantitative instincts that are refined with age, but these instincts are very limited. For instance, even at birth we are capable of distinguishing between two markedly different quantities – for instance, eight from 16 things.
But we are not the only species capable of such abstractions. Compared to chimps and other primates, our numerical instincts are not as remarkable as many presume. We even share some basic instinctual quantitative reasoning with distant nonmammalian relatives like birds. Indeed, work with some other species, including parrots, suggests they too can refine their quantitative thought if they are introduced to the cognitive power tools we call numbers.
The birth of numbers
So, how did we ever invent “unnatural” numbers in the first place?
The answer is, literally, at your fingertips. The bulk of the world’s languages use base-10, base-20 or base-5 number systems. That is, these smaller numbers are the basis of larger numbers. English is a base-10 or decimal language, as evidenced by words like 14 (“four” + “10”) and 31 (“three” x “10” + “one”).
We speak a decimal language because an ancestral tongue, proto-Indo-European, was decimally based. Proto-Indo-European was decimally oriented because, as in so many cultures, our linguistic ancestors’ hands served as the gateway to realizations like “five fingers on this hand is the same as five fingers on that hand.” Such transient thoughts were manifested into words and passed down across generations. This is why the word “five” in many languages is derived from the word for “hand.”
Most number systems, then, are the by-product of two key factors: the human capacity for language and our propensity for focusing on our hands and fingers. This manual fixation – an indirect by-product of walking upright on two legs – has helped yield numbers in most cultures, but not all.
Cultures without numbers also offer insight into the cognitive influence of particular numeric traditions. Consider what time it is. Your day is ruled by minutes and seconds, but these entities are not real in any physical sense and are nonexistent to numberless people. Minutes and seconds are the verbal and written vestiges of an uncommon base-60 number system used in Mesopotamia millennia ago. They reside in our minds, numerical artifacts that not all humans inherit conceptually.
Research on the language of numbers shows, more and more, that one of our species’ key characteristics is tremendous linguistic and cognitive diversity. While there are undoubtedly cognitive commonalities across all human populations, our radically varied cultures foster profoundly different cognitive experiences. If we are to truly understand how much our cognitive lives differ cross-culturally, we must continually sound the depths of our species’ linguistic diversity.
Educators and business leaders have more in common than it may seem
46.C)They help students acquire the skills needed for their future success.
47.A)By blending them with traditional, stimulating activities.
48.B) By playing with things to solve problems on their Own.
49. C) Encourage them to make things with hands.
50.B)Develop students′ creative skills with the resources available.
Being an information technology,or IT,worker is not a job I envy.
51.B) It does not appeal to him.
52. C) Many employees are deeply frustrated by IT.
53.D) Employees become more confident in their work.
54.D) Think about the possible effects on their employees.
55.A)By designing systems that suit their needs.
That describes the reaction of many Americans this week following revelations that, 50 years ago, the sugar industry paid Harvard scientists for research that downplayed sugar's role in heart disease — and put the spotlight squarely on dietary fat.
What might surprise consumers is just how many present-day nutrition studies are still funded by the food industry.
Nutrition scholar Marion Nestle of New York University spent a year informally tracking industry-funded studies on food. "Roughly 90% of nearly 170 studies favored the sponsor's interest," Nestle tells us via email. Other, systematic reviews support her conclusions.
For instance, studies funded by Welch Foods — the brand behind Welch's 100% Grape Juice — found that drinking Concord grape juice daily may boost brain function. Another, funded by Quaker Oats, concluded, as a Daily Mail story put it, that "hot oatmeal breakfast keeps you full for longer."
While these examples might induce chuckles, the past year has seen several exposes that have raised serious concerns about the extent of industry's influence on food and nutrition research outcomes.
Last year, The New York Times revealed how Coca-Cola was funding high-profile scientists and organizations promoting a message that, in the battle against weight gain, people should pay more attention to exercise and less to what they eat and drink. In the aftermath of that investigation, Coca-Cola released data detailing its funding of several medical institutions and associations between 2010 and 2015, from the Academy of Family Physicians to the American Academy of Pediatrics. All told, Coca-Cola says it gave $132.8 million toward scientific research and partnerships.
And earlier this summer, the Associated Press released an investigation that looked at research funded by the National Confectioners Association, a trade group whose members include the makers of Tootsie Rolls, Hershey's kisses and Snickers bars. One study the group funded concluded that kids who eat candy tend to weigh less than those who don't. In an email to her co-author, the AP reported, one of the scientists behind that study wrote that the finding was "thin and clearly padded." Nonetheless, the paper was published in a journal called Food & Nutrition Research.
"It's definitely a problem that so much research in nutrition and health is funded by industry," says Bonnie Liebman, director of nutrition at the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a nonprofit advocacy group. "When the food industry pays for research, it often gets what it pays for." And what it pays for is often a pro-industry finding.
Michael Moss is an investigative journalist who focuses on the food industry and author of the expose Salt, Sugar, Fat: How The Food Giants Hooked Us. He says a lot of times, food firms are funding research that they know is going to go their way — a finding they can tout on their packaging to sway consumers to buy their products. The problem is, the findings that get published may be incomplete, highlighting positive outcomes while leaving out negative ones. And then, there are studies that are simply poorly designed.
As a researcher, notes Moss, one can tweak the experimental design "in subtle ways that can lead to a desired conclusion — whether you're taking money from industry or you yourself have a passion or conclusion you want" to see, he says. "There's just a lot of bad research out there."
And yet, as we've reported before, this junk nutrition science frequently gets touted in press releases written to drum up interest, then picked up and disseminated by journalists who lack the wherewithal to spot the bad research methodology. In May 2015, science journalist John Bohannon highlighted exactly how this process plays out: He conducted a real — but really poorly designed — study that concluded eating chocolate can help you lose weight, then watched as media outlets ran with the study.
While Bohannon's study was a deliberate hoax designed to expose the flaws in nutrition science journalism, similarly bad studies get reported on all the time. As Gary Schwitzer of Health News Review, a watchdog group for the media's coverage of health, told us last year, the problem is extensive. "We have examples of journalists reporting on a study that was never done," he told us in 2015. "We have news releases from medical journals, academic institutions and industry that mislead journalists, who then mislead the public."
Given this environment, where bad science on what to eat or drink is pervasive, what's a consumer to do?
Be skeptical when reading about the latest finding in nutrition science, says Moss.
Ignore the latest study that pops up on your news feed, adds Liebman. "Rely on health experts who've reviewed all the evidence," she says. She points to the official government Dietary Guidelines, which are based on reviews of dozens or hundreds of studies. "Experts are able to sift through the evidence and separate the good from bad," she says.
And that expert advice remains pretty simple, says Nestle. "We know what healthy diets are — lots of vegetables, not too much junk food, balanced calories. Everything else is really difficult to do experimentally."
Sugar shocked. That describes the reaction of many Americans this week following revalations
46.B)They turned public attention away from the health risks
of sugar to fat
47. D)Nearly all of them serve the purpose of the funders
48. A) Exercise is more important to good health than diet
49. C)It rarely results in objective findings
50.D)Think twice about new nutrition research findings
51. C)How people viewed success in his fathers time
52. B)It was a way to advance in their career
53. A)They are often regarded as most treasured talents
54.C)What kind of people can contribute more to them
55.D)It will bring about radical economic and social changes.
Boredom has become trendy. Studies point to how boredom is good for creativity and innovation, as well as mental health. For example, a 2014 study published in the Creativity Research Journal found that people were more creative following the completion of a tedious task. Another piece of research published in the same year by the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology found that when people were bored, they had an increase in “associative thought”—the process of making new connections between ideas, which is linked to innovative thinking. These studies are impressive, but in reality, the benefits of boredom may be related to having time to clear your mind, be quiet, or daydream.
The truth is, pure boredom isn’t pleasant. One study published in Science found that participants (67% of men and 25% of women) chose to administer an electric shock to themselves rather than to sit and think quietly for 6 to 15 minutes. In addition, a Washington State University study shows boredom is on the rise, especially in adolescent girls. This is a problem, since boredom can have negative consequences that lead to everything from overeating to issues with drugs, drinking, or gambling.
In our stimulation-rich world, it seems unrealistic that boredom could occur at all. Yet, there are legitimate reasons boredom may feel so painful. As it turns out, boredom might signal the fact that you have a need that isn’t being met.
Our always-on world of social media may result in more connections, but they are superficial and can get in the way of building a real sense of belonging. Feeling bored may signal the desire for a greater sense of community and the feeling that you fit in with others around you. So take the step of joining a club, organization, or association to build face-to-face relationships and create new friendships. You’ll find depth that you won’t get from your screen no matter how many likes you get on your post.
Similar to the need for belonging, bored people often report that they feel a limited sense of meaning. It’s a fundamental human need to have a larger purpose and to feel like we’re part of something bigger than ourselves. A 2007 University of Mississippi study found that when people are bored, they’re more likely to feel less meaning in their lives and vice versa. Conversely, a 2016 study by the University of Southampton found that when people volunteered, their happiness increased. If you want to reduce boredom and increase your sense of meaning, seek work that matters to you where you can make a unique contribution, or find a cause you can support with your time and talents.
People have varying needs for stimulation and adrenaline rushes, but in general, boredom may be a signal that you need to push yourself a bit. This could be a stretch at work or in your leisure activities. After all, happiness is correlated with being challenged and developing new skills, and scrolling through your social media accounts doesn’t meet this requirement. So find opportunities to try new things, whether it’s skydiving, taking on a tough project at work, or starting a hobby that provides a fun outlet.
One of the aspects of boredom is feeling like things are the same from day to day and week to week. Some predictability is good for mental health, but you may also need some variety in your life. Invite people of different backgrounds into your friend group, join the unexpected interest group at work, or read more widely on unusual topics. The key is to broaden your perspective and change what you’re exposed to regularly.
In The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, journalist Nicholas Carr makes a strong case for the ways our brains have been rewired to glaze the surface of things, rather than to go deep. But the ability to have more depth, process deeply, and get into flow are hallmarks of empathy, connectedness, and happiness. Find a project that you can lose yourself in, because it’s so exciting, or set aside time to solve a thorny problem. These kinds of deep thinking can go far in alleviating boredom.
If your definition of boredom is being quiet, mindful, and meditative, keep it up. But if you’re wrestling with real boredom and the emptiness it provokes, consider whether you might seek new connections, more meaning, more significant challenges, diversity of experiences, or more depth in your efforts. These are the things that will genuinely alleviate boredom and make you more effective in the process.
Boredom has become trendy. Studies point to how boredom is good for creativity
46.A)It facilitates innovative thinking.
47.A)A need to be left alone
48. C)It may prevent people from developing a genuine sense of community.
49.B)Reflect on how they relate to others
50.D) Devote themselves to a worthy cause
Can you remember what you ate yesterday? If asked, most people will be ..
51. A)Calorie consumption had fallen drastically over the de cades
52.A)People s calorie intake was far from accurately reported
53.B)They overlook the potential causes of obesity
54.A)The growing trend of eating out
55.B] Make sure people eat non-fattening food
Most animals seek shade when temperatures in the Sahara Desert soar..
26. C) crawling
Social isolation poses more health risks than obesity…
26. I) implication
Nowadays you can't buy anyhing without then being asked to provide..
26. E) experience
Tieguanyin is one of the most popular types of tea in China. Originally grown in the town of Xiping, Anxi County, Fujian Province, Tieguanyin is now widely planted in the entire county of Anxi, but the tea from different regions of the county tastes differently. Tieguanyin can be picked in any season throughout the year, while the tea harvested in spring and autumn is of the best quality. The processing of Tieguanyin is very complex as it requires professional skills and sophisticated experiences. Tieguanyin contains many kinds of vitamins and has a unique flavour. It helps prevent heart diseases, lower blood pressure and improve memory if consumed regularly.
Longjing is a type of green tea which is mainly produced in Zhejiang Province in the coastal area in east China. With the unique fragrance and flavour, the tea is well recognized as China s Famous Tea which enjoys great popularity at home and also increasing popularity overseas Longjing is usually handmade. It can be extremely expensive or comparative cheap, which depends on the origin, the picking time and the workmanship. As it contains rich Vitamin C and many other beneficial elements, the tea helps relieve fatigue and delay the aging process if one drinks it regularly.
Pu er is one of the most popular types of tea among the Chinese people, with its best produced in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. where the climate and the environment provide the tea with the best growing conditions. Pu er tea features comparatively dark colour and totally different fla- vour. The longer it brews, the better it tastes. Many Pu er overs especially fancy its unique fragrance and flavour. As it contains many beneficial elements, the tea helps not only protect the heart and blood vessels but also lose weight, re lieve fatigue and improve digestion if one drinks it regularly
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on are people becoming addicted to technology. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Nowadays, we are witnessing a surge in technology in all aspects. People’s views vary greatly on whether this trend are causing people’s addiction. In my point of view, being immersed in a sea of technology will definitely harm people’s life, even make them become addicted.
For one thing, despite the fact that some technologies, are invented to help people, many of them are made to attract people’s attention and make profit. Unaware of this, one would easily get trapped in the world of technology, like computer technology, and lose himself. For another, since most of us are living in a highly digitalized society, few can escape from the influence of their friends and families who are already addicts to technology.
All in all, without strict government restriction and proper guidance on computer technology, people are exposed to the risk of being addicted. It is also necessary for everyone to resist this temptation and maintain good self-discipline.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on whether violent video games online will cause students’ violent behaviors. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
Nowadays, violent video games online have become increasingly popular among students. Many people hold the view that such violent games can cause propensity for violence while others think that those games are only created for fun.
In my opinion, such games do lead to a tendency of violence to some extent. On the one hand, students are easier to be misguided by some violent behaviors in those games since they are not mature enough to tell right from wrong. Consequently, they will probably imitate these behaviors in real life. On the other hand, some students can do what are forbidden in real life while permitted in these games, during which they gradually develop the quality of violence and become easier to make aggressive behaviors when conflicting with others.
To sum up, I think we should reduce our time spent on those violent video games and do more meaningful things to live our life to the fullest.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on whether technology will make people lazy. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.
In present society, the rapid development of science and technology has brought a lot of convenience to people’s life. But a host of people show concerns that the convenience of the technology is making people lazier than before.
From my point of view, technology does not make people lazy. First of all, every advance in human history is the result of technological development. And this progress will promote the development of human productivity. Secondly, technology can liberate human beings from tedious manual labor, so as to carry out more meaningful innovation activities. Finally, human beings do benefit from technological progress, but they do not become lazy because society always evolves with time.
To sum up, I think we should invest more in science and technology and develop new and more creative industries. At the same time, some exploratory practices are ought to be carried out as well to avoid being lazy.